Friday, February 21, 2020

Homoeostasis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Homoeostasis - Essay Example Hence, insulin helps to maintain the blood glucose at optimum level after a healthy person consumes a high sugar meal. The body will convert glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle into glucose to ensure there is enough blood glucose available to a healthy person when they have not had a meal for the twelve hours. The pancreas releases glucagon to stimulate the breakdown of glycogen. The muscle cells convert glycogen stored in the skeletal muscle. On the other hand, several enzymes catalyse the process of converting liver glycogen into glucose. Majorly, glycogen phosphorylase plays a huge role in the glycogen breakdown (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer 2006, p. 434). After twenty-four hours of glucose deprivation, the body generates glucose from non-carbohydrate substrate through the process of gluconeogenesis (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer 2006, p. 458). The process occurs in the liver and utilises energy. The temperature control in the people with type 1 diabetes is paramount. The high temperatures generated by cycling can have adverse effects such as nerve damage to the person who forgets insulin injection. The body will attempt to lower the high temperatures caused by inability to sweat exhibited by type 1 diabetic patients (Petrofsky et al 2005, p. 3). Notably, the smooth muscles of blood vessels will dilate to increase the blood flow to the skin surface. The increased flow of blood to the surface will lead to the loss of the excess body

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Derek Jarmans Blue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Derek Jarmans Blue - Essay Example Discovering he was HIV positive in 1986, it comes as no surprise that Jarman’s work passionately embraced the call of AIDS activism. Indeed, until his death from AIDS in 1994 a great amount of Jarman’s visual and sound art concerned the nature of homosexual identity and the need for increased attention to victims of this disease. While Jarman’s artistic production exhibits a considerable range of work, from stage design to writing and even conceptual pieces, it’s unquestionably his work in the filmic medium that has garnered him the most critical acclaim. While beginning with crude super 8 mm films, Jarman progressed to more elaborate film art visions. In Sebastianne (1976) Jarman is credited with producing the first British film that depicted homosexuality from a positive perspective. In the 1980s Jarman increasingly turned his attentions to questions of homosexuality and AIDS activism. These themes and style continued until Jarman eventually experienced health concerns and began constructing more paired down works. It is in this context that Jarman’s seminal film Blue was produced in 1993. During the time of its production Jarman was dying of AIDS and his sight was rapidly diminishing. The film itself consists of an entirely blue screen with text and music interspersed in a stream of conscious like narrative format. Rowland Wymer has articulated the film as, â€Å"The return to the suffering body - the blue screen representing not only an 'open door to the soul' but also an after-image on the retina left by the 'shattering bright light of the specialist's camerea' - is also a return to politics.† While the narrative contains ambiguity characteristic of Jarman’s personal artistic approach, it’s clear the film exhibits a relationship between the motif of transcendence and AIDS activism. This essay considers Derek Jarman’s Blue within this context, and attempts to situate it within the broader contex t of Queer theory, and the aural landscape of the relatively new field of sound art. Analysis In great part one detects in Derek Jarman’s Blue the interrelation between the form of the film and the underlining subtext of the film’s narrative and artistic intentions. Perhaps the most pervasive and overarching structural concerns one notes is transcendental nature of how the flow of life equals the stream of conscious flow of the narrative. In these regards one thinks of the transcendent in the Emersonian sense, as life is understood not as the singular entity of the individual, but rather as a universal oneness. This flows from Jarman’s own confrontation with morality in the film and the impending questions all individuals with AIDS must face regarding their own transitory existence. While the film returns to a number of thematic tropes, it is this underlining subtext, namely the motif of transcendence and AIDS activism, that is perhaps most prevalent throughout Jarman’s work in this film. As the film progresses these thematic concerns gradually become articulated through a number of structural means. While the predominant emphasis is on the nature of sound and text, one must also consider Jarman’s implementation of the blue background throughout the entirety of the film. Early in the film, one notes Jarman’s direct discussion of the color blue. The film states, â€Å"Blue is the universal love in which man bathes. It is the terrestrial paradise.† The film then transitions to the narrator describing himself walking along the beach in which he hears the voices of dead friends. Here the blue background represents the transcendence of the ocean and sounds of past friends. It functions as a testament to these individuals who perhaps died from AIDS, drawing attention to the

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Environmental Systems Of Wastewater Management Environmental Sciences Essay

Environmental Systems Of Wastewater Management Environmental Sciences Essay Wastewater is any liquid waste that is discharged from such places such as residential areas, industries and agricultural areas. Though the water is negatively affected by human impacts on the environment and may contain a large number of contaminants, it mostly consists of pure water, up to 95%. Throughout the world, an increase in the discharge of wastewater is causing a major impact on our environment. Wastewater pollution is more and more a danger to our planet because of rapid population growth, and increasing demand in water supply and sanitation provision. According to research, every liter of wastewater pollutes up to 8 liters of freshwater. Hence, each year, around 12,000 km3 of the globes water resources may not available to us. By 2050, the anticipated population of the world is thought to rise to 9 billion and if the wastewater pollution keeps on with the same speed with the population growth, the worlds water resources could see a drastic reduction by around 18,000 km3 annually. For now, in developing countries, around a tenth of the overall domestic wastewater is collected and only about nine-tenth of the existing wastewater treatment plants do not operate reliably or efficiently. Adverse effects or inadequate wastewater handling: increased illness and mortality lead to loss in terms of finance 4 million lost person-years annually cost of production of drinking and industrial water increases; water tariffs increases $56 billion annually World Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure US, March 2003 loss of income in fisheries and aquaculture sector tourists are deterred by the poor water quality loss of valuable biodiversity, both in the water and land surrounding the affected water 70% of coral reefs real estate values fall in value because quality of the surroundings is deteriorated Wastewater Local Overview In Mauritius, there are about 100 industrial units engaged in several activities resulting in some kind of water pollution. When liquid effluents are discharged from industries, they tend to go into the hydrological cycles and thus adversely affect the ecosystems and the quality of water reaching the consumers. Moreover when looking at the small size of our island, we can deduce that those effluents can very easily and rapidly pollute most of our water sources, from rivers to the seas. Many of the industries that pollute most of our water are basically found in 3 main industrial zones which are: Plaine Lauzun Coromandel Vacoas-Phoenix Firstly, the Plaine Lauzun zone includes the galvanizing, food canning, dye houses, ethanol distilleries, soap, detergent and chemical manufacturing industries. Their daily water consumption is approximately 5000m3 and they discharge their respective wastewater effluents to the Fort Victoria Sewerage treatment in Port Louis whereby only a pre treatment is carried out. Moreover the pre-treated wastewater is discharged 800m into the sea which will in turn find its way in the nearby beach named Bain des Dames where high fish mortality rate have been reported due to the release of heavy polluted water. Secondly, the Coromandel Industrial zone comprise of industries such as food processing, dye houses and soap industries. Their daily water consumption is about 3000m3 and they discharge their untreated wastewater by means of a 600m outfall into the sea at Pointe aux Sables to Port Louis. As a result, these effluents have been the cause of the total death of the reef opposite Pointe aux Sables. Thirdly, the Vacoas-Phoenix zone consists of about 30 industries including one edible oil refinery and six dye houses. Their daily water consumption is about 2000m3 and they discharge their untreated wastewater into the local sewerage network which leads to the St Martin treatment plant whereby a primary treatment is carried out before it is then discharged to the sea at Pointe Moyenne. Moreover there exists a potential for health effects to crop up since during the rainy season, overflowing of water can cause a considerable amount of effluents to be discharged into river Du Mesnil which in fact is joined up to Grand River North West and from which water is extracted for domestic purposes. On the other hand, there exist several other industries which are distributed all around the island and that in turn contribute to the pollution of water and these consist of galvanizing, dyeing, battery manufacture, leather tanning and washing industries. However since these industries do not generally carry out any onsite treatment of their effluents before they discharged it in surface waters or pits and caverns, hence there is a high possibility of aquifers being contaminated by such methods of discharge. Disposal routes of wastewater Rivers All around the world, rivers are the most often used as pathways of wastewater discharge. If not rivers, then canals and tributaries are used which eventually end up in a river. Sea Many industries found near to the sea use the sea as their dump for wastewater. Further wastewater is added to the sea through rivers. Sewers Industries direct their wastewater through sewers to the nearest treatment plant. On-site treatment Industries treat their wastewater as far as possible to make it comply with the countrys legislation. Sometimes the water may be reused by the industry itself. Carting away The wastewater is carried away in specialized dedicated vehicles to be disposed off somewhere more appropriate. This method is used when the water is of a kind that cannot be discharged in the nature even if treated and hence it is sent somewhere its potentially negative effects can be neutralized. Irrigation The wastewater is used for irrigation if it non-toxic and is considered suitable for the task. Major sources of wastewater in Mauritius Sugar Industry Since the sugar industry is one of the main pillars of our economy, we ensure it will still be one in the near future and thus limit its negative effects on our environment. Standards for effluent limitation have been introduced by Mauritian authorities to sugar factories and these norms have been in force since October 1999. But many sugar mills in Mauritius are not yet equipped with a conventional secondary or advanced treatment. For factories that can not dilute their wastewater before discharge or that cannot use their wastewater for irrigation, an appropriate treatment technique should be found for treatment of their medium to high strength wastewater so as to comply with the existing environmental law. Wastewater from sugar factories is considered as non-toxic organic source of pollution so it would be acceptable to have a biological treatment system. The sugar industry produces at least 5 million meter cube of wastewater per year (2001). What produces wastewater in the sugar industry? Cooling water: mainly used for condenser, bearing cooling, sulphur/lime houses and crystallizer for formation of crystal. Process water: used in the sugar making process. Parameters Standards Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 90 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 30 pH 5-9 Conductivity 2000 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 45 Oil Grease No visible oil SAR 6 Cl- 250 SO42- 500 The above table shows the standards of effluent (wastewater) according to the Standards of Effluent for Discharge Government Notice 2003. Major sources of wastewater in Mauritius Textile Industry The textile industry is another important pillar of our economy and textile factories can be found all around the island. Due to the various processes (sizing, bleaching, dying) existing in the textile industry, a considerable amount of water is being used and thus a very large amount of wastewater for discharge is produced. Unfortunately, not all the textile factories are equipped enough to cater for their wastewater treatment and many of them discharge toxic and untreated wastewater in nearby rivers and canals. Textile wastewater may consist of: Natural fibers: wool, hair, silk, cotton, flax Synthetic fibers: rayon, nylon Chemicals: dyes, de-foamers, bleaches, detergents, optical brighteners, equalizers In the past recent years, many incidents concerning discharge of untreated wastewater by textile industries directly into natural water bodies have taken place such Mon Dà ©sert Alma canal pollution by the Compagnie Mauricienne de Textile Ltee (Verdun). Major sources of wastewater in Mauritius Breweries Brewery has become a very important industry in Mauritius since it has a so vast market now. Brewery operations tend to produce considerable amounts of wastewater as waste products. Even by implementing new technological improvements in the past, it is estimated that around 3 to 10 liters of wastewater is generated for every liter of beer produced in breweries. The quantity of brewery wastewater produced will normally depend on the production and the water usage. Brewery wastewater may contain: Wort and beer wastes, spent grain and grain dusts. Fermentation solids, yeast wastes. Waste water of CIP equipment (cleaning and disinfection equipment. Sodium wastes from the CIP equipment. Acid solution from CIP equipments. Caustic soda from PVPP filters. Waste water with kieselguhr. Alkaline cleaning water. Alkaline waste water from bottle cleaning system. Insoluble substance, paper and cardboard, aluminium and ferrous metals. Soluble substance like adhesive, metals salt and conveyer lubricant. Oil and grease track from the equipments lubrication. Beer wastes from returned bottles and kegs. Even different lubricants cannot be eliminated so they finish in water. Such substances increase the percentage of contamination of waste waters. Many of the above substances, such as yeast, sodium, caustic soda alkaline water, may lead to negative consequences if let without treatment in natural water bodies. Major sources of wastewater in Mauritius Hotels Tourism is the third most important sector in Mauritius. Tourists come to Mauritius for its sand, sun and sea. But now the seas, and eventually the sand, are in danger of deterioration. This is because of the mismanagement of wastewater by some hotels. Hotels with more than 75 rooms are now required to be equipped with treatment plants so as to render their wastewater of a quality according to the norms. To ensure this, frequent monitoring should be carried out by the Waste Water Management. There are approximately 44 wastewater treatment plants in hotels all over the island which produce 7000 m3 of sludge every day. The treated water is then used for irrigation by the hotel itself. Discharging wastewater which is out of the regulatory norms may cause negative effects such as the degradation of our seas and coastal regions where foul smell will emanate eventually, the death of marine animals and vegetation. These problems directly affect the tourism industry as well as the lives of fishermen. Agro-industry (chemicals) It is only with important amounts of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides that modern agriculture in Mauritius can increase its yield. But intensively using agro-chemicals is not an unmixed blessing since its repercussions can be seen at a later stage. 48% (90,100 hectares) of the island is under cultivation and up to 57,500 tons of fertilizer is used each year, which is well above the norms. The problem with excessive use of agro-chemicals is when they are washed away by rain and reach surface water bodies or underground water. The acceptable level of nitrate in water is 45mg/l. Excess nitrate in water causes fast-growing plant life like algae and weeds and the water body becomes clogged all over. Impacts of wastewater on the environment In Mauritius, wastewater comes from mainly industrial processes, sewage consisting of human wastes, organic wastes, and from the agricultural sector pollutants such as animal wastes, pesticides and fertilizers. Today, due to a real change in terms of development in many areas in industrial and agricultural practices, our rivers and other water bodies are the most affected. Mauritius consists of four main aquifers namely as Curepipe aquifer, the Northern, Southern and Eastern aquifers. Taking into account the National Physical Development Plan (volume I p 134) it has been found that our aquifers have been badly polluted due to a lack of proper sanitation which can be described as sewage, wastewater, refuse disposal and bad practices in agriculture. Effects on aquatic wildlife Our sea, lakes, rivers and groundwater are the greatly affected by water pollution, much of it coming from wastewater. Pollution not only affects the quality of the water but also the lives of the species inhabiting it. Change in temperature A change in temperature (e.g hot water from sugar factories) affects the aquatic ecosystem. Although the temperature is increased by only few degrees, this may affect many varieties of fishes and plants. This causes a problem in the food cycle because some fishes that prey on other fishes and plants will have difficulties in finding their food they need. In their turn, they will have to move elsewhere or very often will lead to extinction of some plants and species. Furthermore, an increase in the temperature level of the water causes a reduction in the oxygen percentage in the water and thus resulting in chemical and biological reactions due to this unnatural process. With time, the movement of living organisms, respiration process and metabolism of aquatic plants and animals within the water itself will be at high risks. Pollutants in the wastewater On the other hand, another main water pollutant is the wastes generated by industrial processes which are discharged into rivers. It has been found that if wastes in lesser amounts are discharged in rivers, they can self-purify themselves but if the concentration and amount of wastes are high, then their impacts also will be high. Thus, excessive amounts of wastes chemicals discharged into rivers will not only disrupt the ecosystem but also causes the death of much aquatic life and will lead to bad odors. Sometimes some aquatic animals might not die when exposed to these pollutants but consuming these toxic animals not only will cause poisoning to the consumer but also will have an impact on the reduction of food processing and consumption. Potable water becomes scarce Moreover, consumable water for human beings and animal farming might indirectly bear severe consequences. Because Mauritius is a small island, wastewater released by industries can flow easily across many rivers and resulting in rapid pollution. The problem does not end here because if untreated wastewater reaches underground water reserves and contaminates it, we will be in lack of potable water for consumption. Eutrophication This occurs when a water body becomes abnormally enriched with nutrients. This might be caused by fertilizers run-off into nearby water. Excess nutrients causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce much more rapidly than they would normally, thus resulting in algal blooms which disrupts the normal ecosystem functioning. The large amount of algae exhausts the oxygen in the water thus depriving it from other marine life. This is why many aquatic organisms end up dead but the process of eutrophication continues; the excess algae blocks the sunlight from marine plants which use photosynthesis to live. Furthermore, some algae might produce certain toxins that can be harmful to other animals and even to man. This effect can destroy the entire food chain of the ecosystem affected. Impacts of wastewater on the health of people exposed Consumption of contaminated wastewater In Mauritius it is very rare for people to consume any kind of contaminated water. However, a continuous exposure to low level of contaminants for a long time may cause diseases such as Cancer Liver and kidney damage Nervous system disorders Immune system disorders Birth defects But consumption of high concentration of contaminants may cause the following immediate health effects: Nausea Lung irritation Skin rash Vomiting Dizziness Death When exposed to odors emanating from wastewater Wastewater often has bad odor due to contaminants like sulfur. The following health effects might be seen on people exposed: Coughing / Sore throat Lung problems Headaches Eyes related diseases Examples of wastewater mismanagement The Rivià ¨re du Rempart polluted because of untreated wastewater Mon-Loisir sugar factory was at the centre of a controversy concerning the pollution of the Rivià ¨re du Rempart. The problem has been that the sugar factory discharged dirty and untreated water (wastewater) directly into a tributary river to the Rivià ¨re du Rempart. But according to Joseph Vaudin, the CEO of Mon-Loisir sugar factory, the problem was that the tank farm with foam and bagasse to be used in the fields during the sugarcane cutting periods, which was close to the tributary of the Rivià ¨re du Rempart, ruisseau Chevrette overwhelmed with the heavy rains we had earlier this year. And thus this wastewater discharge was unintentional. rempart.jpg More contribution to the discharge into the river sewage, composed of mud and scum, was brought by a faulty irrigation pipe. But this was detected and repaired within an hour. Jean-Luc Harel, plant manager, stated that the other end of the pipe which is normally concrete will be replaced with steel to avoid this kind of problem in the future. The local inhabitants, of whom several were very irritated, had several complaints pertaining to the discharge of dirty water from the factory directly into the river used by so many. Impacts on the inhabitants: The foul unbearable odor from the river once it is contaminated. The negative effects such as breathing problems to people inhabiting near the river. The water is no more usable for purposes such as irrigation. No more recreation site (people used to swim in the river). Fishing in the river is no more safe. A kind of vegetation seems to be proliferating on the surface of the water, contributing to pollution by; blocking organic materials and all kinds of waste thrown by man, and thus leading to the death of aquatic animals such as fish shrimps. Wastewater from Consolidated Fabrics Ltd, Balaclava Consolidated Fabrics Limited (CFL) factory at Solitude has been, since a few years, dumping toxic wastewater illegally in Rivià ¨re Citron. The norms of the Standards of Effluent for Discharge (Second Schedule) Government Notice 2003 and those of the Guidelines for Inland Surface Water Quality have not been respected. Ending its course in the Turtle Bay sea, this river runs through Balaclava and thus residents of Balaclava have been seriously affected by the bad odour that emanates from the illegal chemical. cfl2.jpg Fig. 03 Despite having voiced out their grievances and the potential health threat many times, the Balaclava Residents Association (BRA) members have seen no action being taken by CFL. Many residents have noticed that these odors are ten times more frequent than before. Impacts on local residents: Many are experiencing a suffocating smell of rotten egg across the morcellement. Almost every resident has complained of nausea, giddiness, sore throats, coughing, vomiting and headaches. One person has even reported of her baby having a rash. People most affected by the smell have to close their windows and doors even at times when the weather was very hot. Impacts on the environment: The river is an eyesore to people. It is not worthy of a paradise island. Aquatic life is being ruined. Fish eels can no more survive in such a polluted river. The water can no more be used for irrigation. The river ends its course in the sea and hence marine life is no more safe. People have reported that their pets have started to cough. cfl3.jpg Fig. 04 Examples of wastewater mismanagement Unbearable odor at Bain-Boeuf beach Bain-Boeuf beach was very much appreciated by everyone until people started complaining about an unbearable odor on the beach and its vicinity. Bain-Boeuf beach is surrounded by many hotels of which some have treatment plants to treat their wastewater. One of the hotels has been discharging its untreated wastewater into the sea. Furthermore, wastewater from agricultural lands might have been washed into the seas bringing in nitrates, phosphates and sulfates. The chemicals above cause a surplus of nutrients in the sea and cause the algae to grow to an abnormal proportion. This process is called eutrophication. The problem is further aggravated with the death of these algae. This causes more harm to the marine life and is also the cause of the foul smell experienced by people around. Furthermore when the algae starts to decompose, it produces hydrogen sulfate, a toxic gas, which when inhaled at high concentrations may cause death. In addition to water and air pollution, there is also land pollution since the dead algae is washed on the shore and is clearly an eyesore. Bain-Boeuf beach has not been practicable as long as the problem has persisted. Conclusion Reference Page

Sunday, January 19, 2020

RIP Bradley Nowell :: essays research papers

-T hose of you who were fortunate enough to meet Bradley Nowell, saw a man who liked to smile and sing. He did these two things with the greatest of ease. The man we knew liked to pick up a guitar, not needles, but on the 25th of May in 1996, many of us were shocked by the news of his tragic death. Just seven days earlier, he married the beautiful Troy Dendekker. Things were lookin absolutely bright for him. It was rumored that he even woke up extra early on the morning of his death to walk his dog on the beach because he felt just great to be living. Hours later after he woke up, he was found dead from a heroin overdose in his San Francisco motel room. W hat went wrong I thought to myself? I remember hearing the news of his death on a local radio station. I've been a Sublime fan since my senior year of high school. The single "Date Rape" made the Chicago airwaves and I was hooked. I did a little research and I discovered that Bradley had been in and out of rehabilitation centers since 1992. Many people that I've talked to about Bradley's death really didn't seem to care. Being a huge Sublime fan, I was angered by their ignorance. Most of the time I heard people say that it was Bradley's fault for taking the drug in the first place, but I came to realize that it really wasn't his fault. Troy Nowell says in the VH1 documentary on Bradley that obviously the drug was "bigger than both of us (Bradley and Troy)". She said he hated what he was doing, and tried to stop numerous times, but the world is ignorant to the fact that this drug, heroin, is extremely physically addictive. Bud Gaugh, the drummer of Sublime, said he used to hug, sweat, and cry with Bradley during his fight with heroin. If it were his choice, Bradley would've stopped using it, but heroin took a hold of his nerves and his entire body. W e need to remember the Bradley who gave us three absolutely spectacular albums and a voice that stopped the world, not the one who stuck needles in his arm. There is not a day that goes by that I don't think about him a good twelve hours during the day.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Foundation Degree (FdSc) in Food Manufacturing Management Essay

Introduction Audit objectives Why Audit? The intentions of this Audit are as follows: Using a recognised GMP standard (UNIDO/BRC) assess and quantify the effectiveness of the current quality system that is in place. Recommend, upon review, strategies for improvement that can be made to meet, and potentially exceed, the minimum retail requirements. * Upon completion, allow the business to set attainable goals and objectives in order to drive the business forward. This is in an efficiency, production and legal capacity. Company Profile Shetland SeaFish (Hull) limited started trading in 1922 as a specialist manufacturer of frozen fish products. The company employs 50-60 staff on site and has a total of 80-100 employees working throughout the group. The group has three factories. The other two are involved in primary processing and fish farming in the Shetland isles. The company supplies supermarkets, discounters, fish wholesalers, frozen food distributors and food service companies. The main market is the UK but the company also has a small export trade. Shetland SeaFish (Hull) limited has implemented a tightly controlled system of operational procedures including a fully documented HACCP system and quality manual. Business Environment The food industry is one under pressure. The fishing industry in particular is an area with its own particular problems which have a direct impact on this company as fish is its primary raw material. Over the past few years, environmental concern over diminishing fish stocks has contributed to increased governmental interdiction to manage fishing quotas. Although this may be the case for the national fishing industry, the world wide catch (up until recently) has been on a steady rise. This company sources raw material from worldwide locals (Particularly the Asiatic areas such as China and Scandinavian Seas) so the impact has been minimal. The way in which the company sources fish may change in the future, as internet auctions are on the increase, and this makes the market more of a volatile entity as prices can fluctuate as events affect fishing procurement. The other main problem with the food industry is the strength of the major multiples over the manufacturers. The major supermarkets to whom most food manufacturers supply, aim to maintain a constant gross profit margin which is typically quite large. To reflect this, the multiples like to pass down on-costs to the suppliers. Offers such as ‘buy one, get one free’ are fuelled by the manufacturer, and come straight from their bottom line. By running a â€Å"BOGOF† offer, it is affectively selling the product at half the unit price for the duration of the offer. One supermarket that this company has dealt with also deducts (on their own accord) a set price to go towards advertising and marketing. For example, a deduction of à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½10,000 might be deducted from an invoice to them for product, with the reasoning being that even if that amount is not being used to directly promote that particular product, just by advertising the stores in general, the increased amount of customers flowing through the store, should they say, increase sales to the company’s product. This deduction from the invoice is imposed by the supermarket, and because you do not know how often they are going to do this, it makes costing for business more difficult. Combine this with the fact that at every price review by the supermarket buyer’s, they demand higher quality products, for a reduction in unit price, depresses margins lower than ever. The margin depression brings with it a set of problems. Because a company has to reduce its costs to meet the price points per units, so as to maintain the business with the supermarket, it makes it for a business to remain as profitable as what it would like to be. A smaller margin means that a company does not have the same amount of free capital available to it to make necessary re-investments which would help to procure more sales and increase throughput. In section four of the overview, a specific study of this is discussed in relation to an OEE study on one of the factories lines. There are several technological resolutions available which if purchased would go a long way to increase productivity. Unfortunately there are several financial constraints which place barriers to the procurement of these technological improvements. A brief discussion of ‘Chicken and Egg’ barriers is briefly explained in section four of the overview. The problem lies in the fact that if a new piece of equipment is needed to continue, or to improve production, then the company does not have enough liquid capital available to be able to purchase it outright. This means that the company would have to investigate borrowing facilities. The problem with this is that the company would like to have a secured amount of business from one of, or a combination of customers, in order to take on the risk of borrowing large amounts of money. The reason for this is that a company has to account for a payback period into their costing to cover borrowing and interest as well as machine depreciation. With shortened product placement tenures, the guarantee of continued business for this period is not there, inhibiting the business from wanting to take a risk of this magnitude. Eventually a company has to ‘bite the bullet’ and take a risk in order to increase turnover and throughput. Smaller margins also mean that there may not be enough of an increase in net profits to cover staff requirements. Each year there is a general staff appraisal to discuss the terms of wages and conditions. If the company is reduced in its profit capacity, then this trend is often relayed onto the workforce. f the company has diminished available finances then money is not possible to give staffs the annual increase in wages or to be able to invest in communal facilities. This has a knock on effect on staff morale and motivation if the annual increase is postponed or if it has to be cancelled. It manifests itself in some individuals in a revenge motivation mentality. As the individuals feel aggrieved because the company cannon comply with what the workers feel is a basic right, then they may wish to ‘get back’ at the company. At best this may just be by reducing their amount and quality of work, therefore their loyalty is affected. At worst, it could be resignation, dissention or even some form of industrial sabotage. Without the increase in wages rates it also lessens the difference between that and what the government sets as the national minimum wage. This poses a problem in relation to retaining, and gaining new employees. At one point, working in a factory used to attract a premium, but over time that has decreased to the point to where wage levels between shop workers and factory workers are almost the same. With the current work ethos among new employees (particularly young people) the dilemma of where would ‘I’ like to work arises. Either a (usually) smelly, shift work system, hard work inducing factory, or a shop, where they can go straight out from without having to go home for a shower and change, is less hard work and usually has a set nine until five work pattern. For the same, or similar, wage, most people appear to want to work in a shop. This displays a distinct shift from employment trends from primary or secondary employment to a majority of employment in the tertiary, or services, sector. If a company has a high turn-over of staff, then generally the quality of staffs decreases. This may then affect production output and efficiencies. One way that this can be combated is though an increase in staff training. This not only acts to both increase staff quality, but it also helps to improve the individuals’ job satisfaction. This is through increased competency, increased knowledge (i.e. making an individual more multi-skilled) and the feeling that they are not in a ‘dead-end’ job. In the industry sector to which this company falls, there is an increased amount of governmental grants available for staff training programmes. Within this factory, all of the employees of first tier level have all been through NVQ level 2 training in Food hygiene and handling. Production supervisors have received additional training to NVQ level three in this area. There is also a range of other courses that are being studied that are part funded, or reimbursed by, governmental policies. It is clear that there are some relatively easy ways to increase the efficiency and line throughputs of production. Unfortunately limiting factors come into play to inhibit potential growth as long as margins are squeezed smaller and smaller. This is a self perpetuating cycle. If allowed to make a little bit more profit then this can be channelled back into the business to increase production efficiency and overall turnover making the business more successful. Legal Issues There is a complex mine field of legislation that comes into play when dealing with a food unit operation. There is a whole plethora of acts and regulations which help to control the food industry which helps to protect the consumer from dubious practices and ensure that the final product that is consumed is of the expected substance, nature and quality demanded. There are several levels of legislation: * Acts, which are statutes passed down by parliament. * Regulations – which are made under specific acts * E.C. directives – which are passed down from the E.E.C. The Food safety enforcement officers have various enforcement powers which enable them to ensure that all of the legislation is correctly adhered to. These can be servicing notices, sampling and seizing foodstuffs, and also to instigate criminal proceedings if an offence is made. The main legislation affecting this business are to be listed as following; Food Safety Act, 1990 This act is in relation to the sale of food for human consumption and is applicable to all food premises. This act makes it an offence to: * Render food injurious to health * Sale or possession of food injurious to health, or that is unfit for, or is contaminated. * Sale of food that is not of the correct nature, substance and quality demanded by the consumer. * Give any false or misleading descriptions. The Food Premises (Registration) Regulations, 1991 (SI No. 2825) amended 1997 This regulation requires all food premises to register with the local, or port authority, in the area that they are situated. Every registration authority must keep a register, which can be accessed by the public for inspection. Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulation, 1995 (SI. No. 1763) This act provides general requirements for all food handlers and premises (with specific requirements for preparation areas, moveable and temp. premises, transport, equipment and the like) to be kept clean, facilitate cleaning, and prevent the accumulation of dirt. It also specifies a requirement for all food premises to identify all steps in the business that is critical to food safety, and to minimise these risks. The Food Safety (Temperature Controls) Regulations, 1995 (SI. No. 2200) This determines any matter involving a risk to food safety, in relation to the nature of the food, manner in which it is handled and packed, and processes and conditions under which it has been displayed or stored. No person should keep food that is likely to support the growth of pathogenic bacteria or the accumulation of their toxins. Products of Animal Origin (Import and Export) Regulations, 1996 These regulations govern the origins of animal foodstuffs from countries outside the EEC. Since 1993, foodstuffs imported from other members of the EEC are not liable for inspection due to the open border policy, but they are still subject to the Food Safety Act 1990. Food Labelling Regulations 1996 (SI. No. 1499) These require most foodstuffs that are to be sold for human consumption be labelled with: * The name of the food. * List of ingredients (Quantifying ingredients mentioned in the name of the food). * Best before dates, which indicate minimum durability or perish ability of the food in relation to microbial or product degradation beyond being fit for human consumption. * Any specific storage conditions required. * Name and address of the manufacturer The Quick-Frozen Foodstuffs Regulations, 1990 (SI. No. 2615) amended 1994 Food that has undergone quick-freezing (i.e. whereby the zone of maximum crystallization as rapidly as possible) should be labelled as such. It must be suitably packaged so as to protect it from microbial and other contamination and also to protect from de-hydration. Must be labelled with: * BBE * Storage requirements including temps. * Batch reference * A clear message not to refreeze after defrosting. There are also some specific legislation relating to food poisoning: Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1994 The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations, 1988 (SI. No. 1546) National Health Service (Amendment) Act 1986 The National Health Service (Food Premises) Regulations, 1987 (SI. No. 18) The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) These pieces of legislation relate to reports of incidences of food poisoning and food borne illness. It empowers officers to investigate food premises on the basis of risk to increased infection, and to identify the source of food poisoning illnesses. Separate to food related issues there are also a number of other pieces of legislation that apply to most businesses. These are: Health & Safety The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 1994 (SI. No. 3246) The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation, 1985 (SI. No. 2023) The Electricity at Work Regulations, 1989 (SI. No. 635) The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, 1992 (SI. No. 2051) The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations, 1992 (SI. No. 3004) The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations, 1992 (SI. No. 2966) The Manual Handling Operations Regulations, 1992 (SI. No. 2793) All of these laws are in relation to keeping equipment in good order; provide all PPE, also in good order, and to report all accidents and medical problems caused by/ at work. There are some new environmental legislation in relation to waste water and effluent, and also the climate change levy. There are also waste land fill laws (After B.S.E. and Foot and Mouth no food wastes can be further processed into animal feeds) It is clear that there are a lot of laws that help to keep the consumer, and employees safe, both in relation to food safety and personal safety. In order to comply with all of these laws, and check with the company’s compliance to these, the office of fair trading and the environmental health office audit the factory on a regular basis. Section 2 Key Findings Summations on Audit checklists Section by section review HACCP System: The company has a very detailed and comprehensive HACCP system following the Codex principles and based on risk assessment for each product type. The latest revision is June 2002. The HACCP documentation includes Introduction (Intro, team, product description, intended use, flow diagram, and verification of flow, controls and hazards), Process flow (product, production process), Hazards, Hazard analysis and Hygiene controls. The site technical manager who is qualified in advance food hygiene leads the HACCP team. The other HACCP team members include the production manager, financial director, business consultant, Q.A. supervisor and H&S officer. They have all received training in HACCP principles. Eight CCP’s have been identified and clearly marked around the site. These include; R.M. intake, band saw room, product storage, packaging storage, coatings, sauce making, sauce buggies, sauce deposition and metal detection. Shetland SeaFish (in conjunction with Cravenglow consultant limited) has produced a handbook for employees entitled â€Å"Understanding HACCP and the British Retail Consortium Quality Award†. This book was issued to all staff before going through their first successful BRC audit, and is issued to new staff during induction. The Handbook explains; HACCP terms and working practices, details the eight CCP’s, How to control potential Hazards, How HACCP works, Different types of Hazard, other important HACCP information and an introduction to the BRC standard Quality Management System: The site operations/quality manual has been fully implemented and indexed in the latest revision (Revision 4 October 2002) to the BRC technical standard version three. Policies and procedures referenced to the HACCP manual and currently cover all of the identified critical controls. Each working area has its own handbook that includes some or all of the following: Factory cleaning procedures Technical terms Key staff Safe working practices Factory procedures QA procedures applicable to the area. A specifications file maintained by the company has a programme of internal audits that cover the entire quality system twice per year. The handling of complaints is the responsibility of the Technical manager. Complaints are referenced individually, by customer, and complaint type. Corrective actions arising from complaints are recorded. An approved supplier list is in operation, deliveries assessed at intake, and supplier performance reviewed quarterly. One of the key findings of this audit has been that although the supplier audit plans clearly defined and laid out, it has not been adhered to. This needs rectifying by the time of the next audit. Factory Environmental Standards: The factory is well located just off the main route into Hull, and has a logical process flow. The buildings are well constructed. Walls panelled with false ceiling and smooth concrete floors. Equipment is industry standard and is be well maintained. There is a planned maintenance system administered by a well-resourced engineering department. Staff changing facilities are provided by separate storage of work wear and personnel wear with staff locker rooms situated well away from production. Work clothing situated in changing facilities on the entrance to the production facility. A dedicated night hygiene crew operate a comprehensive cleaning programme, verified using bioluminescence ATP swabs. This form of assessment is under utilised. By conducting more swabs, a more indicative trend analysis can be compiled. This system could also be extended to incorporate hand swabbing, so as to gauge the effectiveness of the staffs hand washing. A comprehensive pest control contract is in place with â€Å"Rentokil† and no infestation reported. The only addition to this regime would be to introduce catch tray analysis. This is not done at present, although Rentokil have been asked to provide a quote for the service. The reason that catch tray analysis is so important is that various indicator species of insect may help to identify a particular problem within the factory. Another option is that the accountant is a qualified entomologist. The suggestion has been made that they complete the catch tray analysis on behalf of the company. Transport and waste removal are both contracted out services. Product Control: There is a product development procedure detailing the process steps and documentation held for customer driven development work. Development work is mainly restricted to crumbs, batters and sauces and as such, the suppliers of these materials carry out a lot of the work. Product is analysed on line hourly by trained QC staff External chemical and microbiological analyses are carried out at a UKAS accredited external laboratory. The result turn around is typically ten days. There is an investigation into the possibility of bringing the microbiological testing into a feasible in-house solution. The testing procedures preferred are the rapid methods that are now available on the market. These allow for rapid enumeration and identification in unprecedented speeds compared to traditional plating methods. Because of the simplicity of the tests, it reduces the degrees of error that might be entertained in old style methods, and also it helps to simplify the lab quality manual. All of these rapid methods are AOAC accredited methods and are thus suitable for ISO 17025 standards, which is a pre-requisite for the accreditation edicts stated for BRC compliance. Products coded to allow stock rotation, and on-site stock levels kept to a minimum. The cold store has the capacity for approximately 600 pallets, which are on a mobile racking system. Metal detection is carried out on all products at 3.5mm non-fe and 3.5mm fe. Legislation is on the way to incorporate testing using S. Steel rods as well, using the same sensitivity levels. Product is released based on on-line QC testing. A non-conformance procedure is used to prevent the despatch of non-conforming product and its restriction to quarantine. Process Control: Control of sauce cooking and processing is closely monitored by QC and thermographs are in place to verify sauce cooking profiles. QC also regularly verifies process parameters and freezer temperatures. Continuous quantity control monitoring equipment is in place on the coated fish line. Check-weigh systems are calibrated at the start of each day following a detailed calibration procedure. Hourly QC checks and daily taste panels verify process parameters and specifications requirements have been fulfilled and all measuring equipment is calibrated at appropriated frequencies. A small amount of kosher product is processed on site and the delivery processing and despatch of kosher materials is closely monitored. Personnel: Staffs trained to NVQ levels 1 and 2 in hygiene and safe product handling by external consultants. Plans are in place to introduce an in-house training scheme. The Q.A. supervisor holds a CIEH certificate of Advanced Food Hygiene. Once they complete the CIEH professional trainers’ certificate, it will allow them to train new staffs, and re-iterate to current, basic food hygiene and H&S. Hygiene rules are also available in the staff handbook, given at induction. Induction includes hygiene and H&S requirements, fire drill procedures including a tour of the facility (highlighting emergency exits), company objectives and the review of the individual’s accountability level. Staff and visitors complete a basic medical questionnaire before entering the factory. Protective clothing provided and laundered by â€Å"Brooks† based in Hull and only specialising in laundering of food industry clothing. Supervisory staff and line leaders trained to NVQ levels 3. Detailed training records are in place, but not review on a frequent basis. Section 3 Improvement strategy Recommendations on enhancement Why did it fail? What can be done? The overall result of this audit is promising. The main sections that are in need of improvement are the cleaning and management systems. With regards to the cleaning controls one of the biggest deficiencies is that there were no daily cleaning logs in place at the time of the audit. These are necessary to verify that all of the pieces of equipment that has been used during the course of the production shift have been cleaned effectively. This should also incorporate a list of equipment that needs weekly or monthly cleaning, similar to the engineers’ protective maintenance system. Provisions are in place to indicate cleaning frequency, but by combining this with a daily cleaning log a system of records can be obtained to help with any ‘Due Diligence’ defences that might need to be called into play. The preventative step to reduce the microbial and soil loads within the factory are the cleaning schedules, but the due diligence defence are the daily logs. These are a record confirmation that the schedule has been implemented, and also provides accountability of who conducted the particular action that might be in question. It also helps the management team to assess the manning levels required for a particular cleaning regime. By combining these logs with an effective utilisation of the Lightning ATP hygiene verification system it would be possible to more accurately monitor the effectiveness of the cleaning systems that are in place. At present the unit is not used at levels that are going to supply the monitoring team with a set of results that are statistically significant. By increasing the levels of testing with the unit, a better picture of cleanliness levels can be obtained by using the trend analysis software to scrutinize past results and to predict problems that might occur in the future. This system could also be extended to apply to incorporate hand washing checks. This could be done on a random set of checks throughout the week. It might be possible to correlate this to the expected and actual bacterial soap usage rates to see if there is a relationship. This might be an extra way to monitor the effectiveness of the staff in the own personal hygiene in relation to hand washing. The engineers need to keep an inventory of parts as a repair is carried out so that all pieces are accounted for upon completion so as to eliminate the possible physical contamination problem, or at least to identify if there is one. A number of hose pipes were observed around the factory, liberally strewn on the floor. This is not bad GMP; it also creates an impression of untidiness and not caring for not only visitors, but also to other staff. Perhaps the purchasing or some hose reel storage units. If these hoses were kept on one of these units, it would automatically reel in and is then kept neatly on the wall, off the floor and out of the way of people walking around the factory. During the course of the audit the food waste skip was left open. This leaves the door open to many potential problems. The first is that it has a potential to attract pests. By leaving the skip doors open is may provides a food source for advantageous vermin. It was observed that there were some birds on the fence which might have been attracted by the residue surrounding the skip. To eliminate this problem construction of a reaching handle for the skip door should be made. By keeping the skip door closed it prevents vermin from entering the skip to scavenge for food. With the skip door closed, thus stopping pests from gaining a free food store, the area around the skip must be kept clear also; otherwise keeping the door closed is a futile effort. This area not only needs to be swept, but also cleaned down with a detergent to emulsify the fatty residue left from the batter scraps. This would also help to make the area safer for the employees as it would make the area left prone to causing slippages, and this is especially important as there is a small set of steps out there. There is no provision for persons to wash their hands upon re-entering the factory after going to the food skip. There person would have to go to the basins outside the packaging area. A small basin or alcohol station should be installed to prevent this. The main body of the factory was in very good condition. There were a few incidences that need to be rectified in order to improve the grade. Around the sauce making area, the ceiling tiles above them had some signs of mould growth. This is an indication that the ventilation is perhaps inadequate for that area. Some form of steam extraction unit might need to be investigated in that area. In the short term, regular cleaning with a sterilizer (with some form of mould growth inhibitor) would suffice, but this would only deal with the symptoms, and not deal with the route cause. The sauce agitators in this area are in need of recovering. The motors on the agitators have some small areas of paint flaking from them. Even though the paint is blue in colour, it provides a potential physical contamination problem. This needs to be tackled in several ways. The first and easiest to do is to recover the motors. The motors can be covered with a stainless steel covering which would prevent both paint flakes falling into the sauce, but also dirt accumulation on the motor. Another method is to use an alternative agitator motor. There are several on the market, and several of these are not mounted directly above the sauce making kettles. There are also some other methods for sauce production, that if increased production were to be required, then they should defiantly be investigated. Another area in the factory that could benefit from additional extraction/ventilation is directly surrounding the coating line. When the fryer is producing breaded products, then the first stage crumb, which is a fine crumb, causes a lot of dust to be blown in the air. This causes excessive dust accumulation on the pipe works above the fryer line. This needs additional cleaning to remove the dust in this area. Perhaps a form of extraction system should be investigated in this area. As a minor point, there was also a small pool of water surrounding the con-air compressor units. This implies that the floor does not bevel in the right direction. Again this is a situation that has a long term objective, but also has a short term measure. The long term goal is to re-lay the floor in that area to make the floor slope in the right direction (i.e. from the wall to the drain). The short term solution is to have the cleaners regularly squeegee the floor of water. Standing water is a particular problem in that it provides excellent breeding ground for Listeria spp. Bacteria. Listeria is a food borne bacteria that is naturally found in the environment. By providing pools of standing water, it magnifies the problem and opens the potential for increased incidences of Listeria monocytogenes poisoning. It is a strange practice that although there are manager and team leader meetings on a regular basis, there were no supervisor meetings held. This is a gross deficiency, not for GMP, but for the lack of communicational strokes that are missed from these meetings. By conducting these meetings a dialogue can be maintained between the higher levels of management and the junior levels. During these sessions company objectives can be relayed, problems considered, and grievances examined. It is also an excellent opportunity to provide motivation to the staff and to keep them apprised of important happenings within the company, such as potential sales, production turnover, NPD and the direction of the company. These meeting should be implemented effectively immediately. If not in their own right, then try combining the team leader meetings. This may pose a problem with truthful communication if the team leaders feel inhibited by the presence of the supervisors, especially if they have any grievances with them. The omission of the supervisor meetings exacerbates the next point. That is the cross communication of ideas and instructions between departments. This point is discussed in more detail in the second overview of the audit. The job descriptions that are in place for the key positions within the factory are deficient in the totality. I would suggest a review of these be taken with the specific aim to include the individuals’ main duties and responsibilities, full accountability, and any health and safety requirements that are obligatory to know. By providing a comprehensive description it helps the individual to identify their own progress against what is expected of them. It would also help to identify any training needs by comparing what the individuals’ actual abilities to what is needed for that position. During an appraisal a gauge of competency can be made against the standard and a measure of feedback can be relayed to the person. This also ties into the fact that no records are kept of personal record reviews. These need to be conducted on a regular occasion, and if they are being conducted at the moment, then they need to be recorded. There are some clear objectives that have been identified and now need to be applied and rectified to improve the factory as a whole. Section 4 Conclusions Overview of progression stratagems Step by step guide Structure and Fabric * Hand washing basin/ alcohol station to be installed by exit to food skip. * Foods skip needs to be looked at and a handle constructed to enable the lid to be closed. * Sauce kettles needs to be looked at for possible installation of extraction units. * Sauce agitator motors needs to be covered to prevent paint flaking into product. * Hose pipes to be placed into self reeling units. * Pool of water needs investigating around con-air units. Floor needs re-laying in that area. * Dust accumulation above fryer area. Additional extraction needed. Pest prevention * Pallet shed door needs to be kept closed. Pallets stored away from walls in storage. * Some drain covers missing and needs replacing. * Catch tray analysis needs to be done. Cleaning systems * Daily cleaning logs introduced. * Engineers inventory of parts during a repair to prevent contamination. * Effective utilisation, and expansion, of ATP hygiene monitoring system. Management Controls * Introduction of supervisor meetings. * Additional training to supplement and increase knowledge of GMP systems, Food hygiene and legislation. * Review of job descriptions. * Record employee appraisals. Section 5 References Background / further reading. Including bibliography Hygiene for Management, Sprenger. R. A. 1998 (8th Ed) Cleaning, Dillion M, et al Inspirational Supervisor, Shaw J. 1999 FdSc Food manufacture management GMP Course work notes, Dillion M. 2002 Log book & Overviews Overviews Part 1: Basic findings from two sections of the manual. Section 1 – Structure and Fabrication The factory has a logical process flow and the buildings are of sound construction. All internal factory wall surfaces are panelled with a lowered false ceiling and smooth resin floors. Equipment is industrial food grade standard and appears to be well maintained. A preventative planned maintenance system is in operation and resourced by a competent engineering department. The work wear is situated in a separate clean changing area immediate on entrance to the production area. The pest control is out-sourced to Rentokil (initial services) with no signs of infestation problems to report. OBS 1: The floor is made of an impervious material and when combinations of two immiscible liquids (such as oil and water) mix, it causes some sections of the floor around the fryer area are slippery. Recommendation – Review the cleaning schedule for this area to include a protocol stating that the floor in that area is to be cleaned as often as required throughout the production day, in addition to the usual scheduled cleans. Another suggestion would be to use a floor covering/mat to make the area more non-slip. Timescale – 30days OBS 2: There was a small pool of standing water around the con-air units during production. Recommendation – The long-term goal would be to re-lay/repair that section of floor to provide an adequate slope to provide water run-off into the drainage channels. Action to be taken place in the mean while would be to revise the cleaning schedule to include that the area is to be cleared as often as required throughout the production day. Timescale – 90 days OBS 3: There was no steam extraction above the sauce making kettles giving rise to N/C1. N/C1: Evidence was noted by observation and noted, audit checklist ref: GMP Section 1 -ref 1.8.2, that there was the beginnings of mould build up on the ceiling tiles above the sauce kettles. Recommendation – Investigate the possible methods of fume extraction best suited to the needs of the task. Possible installation of an extractor cowling. Action that can be introduced quickly is that a revision of the cleaning schedule to include weekly/fortnightly/ or as required cleaning to be undertaken in that area using a detergent with mould growth inhibitor. Timescale – 90days Section 2 – Storage Facilities Storage or R.M, WIP, finished goods, packaging and tainting elements are well segregated with observed codes of practice to prevent cross contamination. Products are coded to allow stock rotation on a FIFO basis and the stock levels that are kept on site are kept to a minimum. There are no contractual off-site storage facilities used. Products are released on the basis of on-line QC testing. Procedures are in place regarding damaged or defective goods segregation and disposal. OBS 1: Only visual checks are made of the contracted out logistics company’s vehicles. Recommendation – Revise an audit schedule to visit their head office so as to not only audit the vehicles used for the transportation of goods, but also to review the company policies and procedures regarding GMP practices. Timescale – 90days Part 2: Area to improve. The area of greatest need is management control, especially in relation to motivation of staffs and inter-departmental communication. A highly motivated workforce can increase the potential output efficiency greatly, without the need for costly capital expenditure. â€Å"Poor communication is the catalyst for future problems† John Shaw, Business consultant The vast majority of problems within the workplace arise due to the lack of or inadequate communication between colleagues. All members of the organisation must develop their verbal and written skills to allow for ease of dialogue between the two parties. Regular dialogue is essential for the pooling together of ideas and suggestions that helps to minimise problems and help to achieve the company objectives. Employees must be able to interpret management edicts and be able to pass on these instructions to other staffs clearly and concisely in order to achieve peak performance. One opinion that might be made is that the company’s impersonal uses of memos are substituting important meetings that would be held to discuss some of the key issues. By conducting regular meetings to open up a dialogue for discussion, it would help to eliminate any confusion that might have arisen because of their own interpretation of what is trying to be stressed in the communiquà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½. By opening a dialogue between colleagues, it helps to make them feel a part of the team because they are being consulted and being offered to stress their opinions and grievances. During the meetings, it lets the individual know exactly what is being expected of them to do, with little chance for error. Once the individual knows the parameters in which they are expected to perform, and then the individual has some attainable guidelines on how to conduct him or herself around the workplace. Being made part of a team is one essential tool in the motivation of staffs. By including their opinions within any debate, it helps to raise that person’s self-esteem. Once a person begins to become motivated, it often leads to greater job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a combination of hard work and competence. Employees who reflect pride in their work are an infectious source of inspiration to others. This can be seen again in persons whom take personal pride and lead by example. Motivation is a key component to modern businesses. Staffs should take every opportunity to motivate others constantly. One way to encourage your staff is to let them know what is required of them by defining the day’s objectives. Use of praise and encouragement inspire maximum performance from an individual from a few choice words or phrases. Where an individual or team needs berating if they have made a mistake, remain calm and resolve the problem through constructive criticism. This is where the situation is given an explanation of what went wrong, gentle words to re-enforce the need that it does not re-occur, and gives further guidance on how it can be avoided in the future. It is imperative that if it is an individual involved, then take them to one side to discipline them. This way you are not undermining them and therefore their personal dignity is maintained. Another critical instruction is not to overreact to minor problems. Destructive and unwarranted criticism is harmful to morale and can easily sweep across a work force. It is also a good idea to be receptive to reasonable grievances that they might have and suggestions that they might make. Motivation encourages individuals and teams to continually achieve the company’s goals through sustained peak performance. Part 3 Cleaning and the Law Cleaning plays a fundamental part of food hygiene. It is pivotal in preventing contamination of both microbiological and chemical, but it also helps to make the indicator signs of pest infestation easier to spot. All cleaning comprises of four factors: * Heat * Mechanical energy * Chemical energy * Contact time Cleaning is usually a five stage process (although not exclusively). 1) Pre-clean 2) Main clean 3) Rinse 4) Disinfect 5) Final rinse 6) Drying The relative energy and time components of a cleaning programme can differ greatly. This is all dependants on the load of soil age, the chemical properties of the cleaning agent, and the surface to be cleaned. Staffs should receive clear concise instruction on how to correctly conduct the cleaning schedule. The chemicals used within this factory are as follows: Chemical Action Fatsolve Surfactant degreasing detergent Bleach Hypochlorite based disinfectant Sparkle Surfactant degreasing detergent Acid foam Acidic de-scaler Caustic floor cleaner Alkaline (NaOH) floor cleaner Caustic pearls Alkaline (NaOH) fryer cleaner Tego 2001 Biocidal disinfectant/detergent combination All staffs that will be handling these products for use in hygiene must receive full training and monitored for competency and efficiency. All of these products must comply with the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 to protect the employee whom is to be using these chemicals. This Act states specific legislation to include: The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regs, 1994 (SI. 1994 No. 3246) (COSHH) These regulations require employers to assess the hazards and provide suitable controls. Implementation is by means of risk assessment. COSHH is concerned with chemicals that can be classified as toxic, harmful, corrosive or irritant. All of the products used within the body of the factory are supplied with all COSHH safety sheets and are filed in the technical department. Each of these products is mentioned in the company HACCP plan to include the risk assessment of these products. Chemicals (Hazards, Information & Packaging) Regs, 1993 (CHIP) Again, this states that all chemicals sold must be supplied with a COSHH safety sheet provided for the purchaser by the supplier. This must include detailed information about the product, its hazard classification under CHIP regulations. It is also prohibited to decant harmful chemicals into unmarked containers. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at work Regs, 1992 These regulations enforce the employer to provide all necessary PPE required for a specific task so as to minimise the health and safety risks that the employees might be subjected to. There are several good reasons why effective cleaning is so important besides those mentioned earlier: * It creates a good visual impression for both workers and visitors alike giving a sense that the business cares. * Helps to maximise the efficiency and costing of several types of products. For example, if a sauce is left to build up deposits, then it would restrict the diameter of the pipe work, making the motor have to run harder to pump product through, thus reducing the lifetime of that component. Its also helps to reduce wastege * Legal obligations. It is that final point which needs further explaining. The food safety Act, 1990 This law makes it an offence to contaminate food so that it would be unreasonable to expect it to be used for human consumption in its current state. It also states that a food proprietor and staffs must identify all steps that are critical to food safety and minimise those risks. This is further backed up by the Food Safety (GFH) Regs, 1995 This states: * Premises must be kept clean, designed to facilitate cleaning, and to protect against the accumulation of dirt. * Make it a requirement for all food business proprietors to identify any step in activities of the business which is critical to food safety, and to introduce restrictive controls at those points identified. This law allows an enforcement officer to raise a non-conformance on the actual presence of dirt, and does not have to prove that that soilage poses a risk to health There is a clear legal and moral obligation that wherever there is a risk to food, a business proprietor must ensure that the working premises are kept clean so as to minimise the risks to public health. These responsibilities must be stressed to all employees not only in their induction period, but also sporadically throughout their employment. Part 4: PEST in relation to OEE During the course of this audit, an OEE analysis was conducted on one of the production lines (See OEE exercise workbook). The aim of GMP is to improve the manufacturing performance, and by using OEE calculations it is possible to gain a quantifiable index of performance. Using the precepts behind GMP it is possible to identify areas that could benefit from improvement so as to improve production performance. The identification of the â€Å"seven wastes† which are the non-value added and also the value added sections of a production period are vital. It is the main objective to reduce the first, and increase the latter. With regards to the production run that was studied several strategies can be entertained to help to minimise waste due to the above mentioned wastes. Firstly, fish cakes are products that produce only small amounts of waste due to the fact that defects can often be re-worked during the same production run. Defect cores can be removed from the line by operatives and then deposited back in the koppens former to be re-moulded into another cake. Reducing the throughput can often help reduce the rejects levels. Running at just a few strokes under the maximum for the line might make it more cost effective to reduce the throughput by a minimal amount in order to dramatically decrease the amount of reject product. By doing this the ‘right first time’ figure could increase to raise overall production efficiency. If speed is the overriding factor, i.e. the faster the speed, the higher the defect rate, then just by reducing the stroke rate of the machine, the amount of over-processing required would be reduced. If however speed were not the decisive factor, then an investigation of the machines capabilities would have to be reviewed, and if it cannot be removed, then do you accept this defect level caused by the machine, or do you evaluate the possibility of purchasing a more efficient piece of kit? With regards to the machine that is in place, the Koppens former is approximately 10-15yrs old and forms cakes by using hydraulic cups and a forming plate. Over the years the maximum output of the machine has dropped by approximately 25% from the max of 40s/m to now 30s/m. Would it be better to buy a new piece of kit. Perhaps the purchasing an AEW forming machine? Unfortunately these are costly pieces of kit. Costing in the range of à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½250K. This is a large prohibiting factor in an SME of the size of the company in question, with their limited financial resources. In order to justify a capital expenditure of that magnitude, a significant order would have to be procured to allow for the required payback period to make it a cost effective purchase. It is almost chicken and egg scenario. With a new piece of machinery of this nature the potential for increased throughput of not only this line, but also of others would rise significantly, but monies or orders to cover payback periods would have to be secured before capital expenditure is considered. It is a difficult political climate with retail customers at present. More and more of the major multiples only issue contracts for periods of usually a year (although there has recently been a downward trend to decrease these to six monthly). So a guarantee off continued business is not certain, which prohibits the purchase of the new machinery. The small margins also affect the staff efficiency and retention (thus quality). Because margins are tight, only a small amount on the top of national minimum wage can be applied. This can limit not only the response to job advertisements, but also with staff retention and loyalty. With a higher staff turnover, the quality of staffs employed often reduces, thus affecting the throughputs and efficiencies of the lines. This interplay of factors is what has to be investigated further upon before resolutions can be found. Identification is just the first step in an overall improvement plan. Appendix 1: Summary Sheets GMP Audit Material Enclosed in this booklet are copies of the audit checklists that you can use to audit your site against each element of GMP. You should aim to audit 2 elements of the standard each week and use the techniques discussed in week 1 on problem solving to objectively assess each element of the standard. If you wish to discuss any elements in more detail then contact one of the tutors on the course who will be able to help you clarify any problems or issues that you may have. IMPORTANT You will need to copy the food safety and hygiene audit assessment form each week, as you will need to use this to summarize for each assignment. Using the Sample Assessment Forms for the 10 sections of Good Manufacturing Practice identify: 1. Areas of Strength and Weakness for the GMP sections for your own plant or operation, using the checklists provided. 2. The causes of problems which are inherent with the areas of weakness 3. The barriers and aids which will effect the improvement process 4. Prioritise the actions needed to improve your Good Manufacturing Practice needs, using the assessment forms, which should be included within your weekly assignment. A grading system has been given on each checklist. You may use this grading system to help you to assess your factory, but feel free to modify this. If you do modify the system then you should explain, quite clearly, how the grading or scoring system is used. Key to the ABCD grading system for assessing the sections and elements of the GMP standard: Grade A Excellent Scores 50 points. Grade A scored when there are no safety problems or issues. Requires no further action. Grade B Satisfactory Scores 30 points. Actionable within defined timescale as agreed at audit. Grade C Major Scores 10 points. Actionable within one working week. Grade D Critical Scores 0 points. A Grade D is automatically awarded when a critical safety issue is identified, and is actionable immediately.

Friday, January 3, 2020

A history of law in England - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2802 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category History Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Rules are necessary in a civilised society to assist us in solving disputes, arising between à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the state and the citizen, or between citizens themselvesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Portsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt and Wyatt [2005] per Hedley J at [4]). However, in any dispute, each party will have rules and principles that best suit their own beliefs or interests. These may vary, depending on their religion, their profession or their status (for example, as a parent, family member or teacher). It is therefore necessary to have a single set of rules that govern everyone equally, so that the decision reached in a dispute is external to the beliefs of any particular group (Arthur et al, Unit 26, p.150). The formal rules governing citizens of a country are described as laws. In order for laws to gain the respect of society, they must follow common values that society holds. Society expects laws to be just and to always be tied to justice (Arthur et al, Unit 26, p.147 ). But the values held by the public and society generally change and evolve, and the law therefore has to, and indeed does, evolve in an attempt to meet those values. This can be demonstrated by the evolution of the law relating to corporate manslaughter. During the period 2005-2006, 212 workers were killed at work and an additional 146,076 non-fatal injuries were reported (Health and Safety Commission, 2006). Successful prosecutions for such incidents were extremely rare. A number of large scale disasters, such as the Clapham Junction crash in 1997 and the Potters Bar crash in 2002 (Arthur et al, Unit 23 p.18) also saw companies escape liability for serious loss of life, despite evidence of major failings in the organisation, due to lack of evidence. Such incidents might have been treated as unfortunate accidents, but changes in the perceptions of society mean that today people are more concerned that organisations should be held accountable for their failings (Arthur et al, Unit 23 p.8). The law has had to evolve to meet these views. Previously, in order to secure a conviction against a company, it was necessary to identify a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"controlling mindà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in that company that was responsible for the particular failings. But as for the PO ferry disaster, it was often the case that the failings of many different people at all levels contributed to the disaster. The introduction of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 made it easier to prosecute medium and large-sized companies where gross failures of management have led to death. Under the Act, it is now only necessary per Section 1(1) to establish that the way in which the senior management has managed or organised the activities of the organisation is a substantial element of the breach that caused the death. This is no easy feat, as identified by Harris (Harris, cited in Arthur et al, Unit 23 pp.27-29), but it is thought that the Act will improve accountability. However, this is still against the corporation as a legal entity, rather than the individuals concerned. This means that whilst the changes demonstrate the evolution of the law to meet societyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s demand for accountability, further change may be necessary in the future, as society may not be satisfied that the Act does enough to address its demands. Such a process reflects how the law has evolved to deal with the demands of society, and this process shows that it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“never staticà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“always changingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Harris, 2007, p.1). The variety of disputes that are brought before the courts is endless. Whilst Parliament strives to produce a comprehensive law that covers as many of these disputes as possible, it is part of the Courtsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ role to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"flesh outà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ this law by applying it to new circumstances not previously contemplated by the Legislature. This process expands t he law; and sometimes, the Courts redefine their application, changing the way they have viewed an Act of Parliament previously. Although the Courts are not rule-makers, in this way, they à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“reinterpretà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“redefineà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  the law (Harris, 2007, p.1). Such redefinition may not just result from the values of society but also the way society is constructed. For example, the concept of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"familyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ has changed a great deal through the years. Traditionally a family consisted of a married couple, together with (usually) two children (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.36). Nowadays, this is far from the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"normà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. One in eight children experience life in a step-family by the age of 16 (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.37) and in 2007, 14% of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"familiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ were cohabiting rather than married (BBC, 2007). Unfortunately, the law does not define the term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"fam ilyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.43) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" this is left for the Courts to do à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" but it would certainly be unjust to apply the traditional concept of the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"nuclear familyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ when applying the law, since this does not represent the reality. Case law has understood à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"familyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ to be those with consanguineous or affinal ties, but this does not always reflect how society defines family. Homosexual couples have historically not had affinal ties because they have not been permitted to marry. Under the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973, a marriage would not be legal when the parties are not male and female respectively (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.46). The Civil Partnership Act 2004 now allows homosexuals to partner in a marriage-like relationship, and thus, the law treats them as family, entitling them to similar legal rights as a traditional married couple. However, the Civil Partnerships Act applies only to homosexual couples à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" heterosexual couples were dropped from its scope à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" meaning that unmarried couples still have issues like Anna Homsi, who was told she could not claim the war widowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pension in respect of her long term partner with whom she had a child, as she was unmarried (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.53). In this respect, the concept of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"familyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in a legal context has been redefined to reflect changes in society, but as for corporate manslaughter, the principles relating to marriage and family need addressing further (and indeed have been subject to further proposed reform) to accurately deal with the new types of families and relationships that are prevalent in society (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.52-54). The rules set out by Parliament in the form of the law cannot be overridden by the Courts. If Parliament has made its intention clear in the words of a statute, the Court has no place to dec ide a case in conflict with that statute (bar situations where Parliament has said it can à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" for example, by agreeing on the supremacy of European Law). Parliament strives to update the law to reflect changing values in society so that whilst not every faction of society will agree with every law, generally the law enacted is representative of society as a whole. This is reflected in the way that every new piece of legislation is generally subject to a lengthy consultation process where bodies such as the Law Commission collect the views of as many stakeholders as possible, before evaluating the best way for the law to evolve, and making recommendations to this end. In this regard, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“regulatorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ striveà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ to ensure that the law constantly reflects changes in society itselfà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Harris, 2007, p.1). Where a matter does not fall under a particular Act, the Courtsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ role will be to extend the law to ap ply to a given scenario. It may be that the Courts have already done this in the past and thus there is an example decision to follow. The doctrine of precedent, holding that previous decisions made by higher courts are followed in future cases where the facts are similar, may determine a particular direction is taken in deciding a case. However, the higher Courts sometimes depart from precedent to ensure that the law continues to reflect the values held by society. Arthur et al gives an example of a situation where sticking to a precedent would produce an unjust result. The example is of a swimming race, the rules to which stated à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the winner is the first swimmer to touch the side of the pool with both handsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . The winner of the race in question had only one arm and was consequently disqualified (Hutchinson, 1988, p. 23). In such a scenario, clearly it would be appropriate not to apply the rule, as drafted, quite literally. The result would be unjust. In such circumstances, the courts may have to read additional words into the rule to produce a just result, although they cannot read words into the statute that go against the will of Parliament. As noted, if the law is applied unjustly it will lose its credibility and fail to gain the support of society. It is essential that judges keep this in mind when applying the law. As well as interpreting Acts of Parliament in such a way as to reflect changes in society, judges may be required to define their scope. Where an Act does appear to clearly set out the views of Parliament, the limitations of its application may be determined by the Courts. For example, Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ECHRà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ), brought into effect in English law by the Human Rights Act 1998, denotes that: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Everyones right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the e xecution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which the penalty is provided by lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . In Portsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt, this right is qualified. The case involved a seriously ill baby, Charlotte Wyatt, who had no sensation other than that of pain. The parents naturally wanted to prolong her life, but the doctors felt to resuscitate her, if she stopped breathing, would prolong her pain and distress. In reaching a decision, Hedley J makes reference to Re J (A Minor) (Wardship: Medical Treatment) [1991], in which Lord Donaldson notes that a balancing exercise is to be performed in assessing the course of action to be adopted that represents the best interests of the childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (cited in Portsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt, at [24]). Lord Donaldson goes on to say that there is a strong presumption in favour of treatment to prolong life à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" but this is not irrebuttable. Account must be made of the pain and suffering involved in the proposed treatment. In the Wyatt case, Charlotte already had a very limited life expectancy and so Donaldsonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s comments in Re J (A Minor) that a treatment would not be in the best interests of the child where it would à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“cause increased suffering and produce no commensurate benefità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Lord Donaldson, Re J (A Minor), at 46à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"47 and 375) were particularly relevant to Charlotte. Hedley J also makes reference to Taylor LJ in the same case who stated that the absolute right to life would certainly not prevail where à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the only way of preserving life [is] by the continuous administration of extremely painful treatmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . Since the absolute right to life was rejected, the criteria was then à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a matter of degreeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . Treatment should be withheld only in extreme cases but Taylor suggested that these cases would be where the child in question, if capable of exercising sound j udgment, would consider the life tolerable under the proposed treatment (per Taylor LJ, Re J (A Minor), at at 55 and 383). Taking these judgements into account, the Court in Portsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt reached the conclusion that it would not be in baby Charlotteà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s best interests for her great pain and distress to be allowed to continue if, after she ceased to breathe, she was deliberately resuscitated. In this way, they qualified the Human Rights Act 1998 and the scope of Article 2 ECHR. This qualification did not reflect any particular view of Parliament but instead reflected the views of society, embodied in the professional medical opinion of the doctors. In this way, the judge can be seen to have strived à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“to ensure that the law constantly reflects changes in society itselfà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Harris, 2007, p.1). Whilst it is clear from the way the law develops that the Legislature and Judiciary both strive to ensure it reflects changes in society , its evolution cannot always be described as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"successfulà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. As noted, the law must be just and applied justly, without which it has no value (per Mummery LJ, quoted in Flannery, 2006). However, the Legislature can only enact laws that meet with the values of the majority. This means that not everyone will share the same values that the law purports to uphold. For example, society has increasingly recognised the rights of children as being equal to those of adults, and consequently the Children Act 1989 gave children the right to express an opinion about matters affecting their welfare, to which the Court must have regard when deciding issues such as where the child should live. The Act also permits children to apply for court orders in their own right. Certain groups have denounced the Act as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a Bratà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Charterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, claiming it undermines parental responsibility and adult power over children (Arthur et al, Un it 24, p.65; Lansdown, 1994). In this regard, the changes that the Legislature makes can be seen to have à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"varying degrees of successà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in that they perhaps go far beyond what was required, empowering children to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"divorceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ their parents or à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"demanding the right to do whatever they wantedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.65), not what was originally intended by the enactment of the Act. Further, the Courts cannot apply the law in such a way that goes against the will of Parliament. This means that they may strive to reinterpret or redefine the law to meet changes but there is a limit to how far they can do this. Thus in Cairns and Gamble, the Court, with regret, were not able to extend the definition of the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"familyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ to assist Miss Cairns in obtain protection of her tenancy under the Rents Act (Reader 3, Reading 36, p.97). The Court was bound to consider the legal meaning of family and could not depart from this, even though society (particularly in the area concerned) would have recognised Miss Cairns as living in a family relationship, albeit without consanguineous ties. It is clearly not always possible for the judge to refine the law to meet changes in society when the degree of change required would go against what Parliament intended. In conclusion, it is clear that the set of enforceable rules that make up our law are ever changing, evolving, being reinterpreted and redefined. We have seen how both the Legislature strives to change the law to meet societyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s demands and the Judiciary strives to apply the law as far as possible to meet the values of society as a whole. However, both experience varying degrees of success. Because values are so diverse, changes will not be approved by every member of society. The passage of legislation, from the initial consultation to the final enactment, is sometimes extremely prolong ed and complicated the Deceased Wifeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Sister Act 1907, for example, took 65 years, 46 debate sessions and 18 successful second readings in the House of Commons before it became law (Arthur et al, Unit 24 p.47). Similarly, the Judiciary are faced with the difficult task of applying the law uniformly whilst upholding the quality of justice in their decisions. Even where a conclusion seems morally unjust, sometimes judges are limited in the action they can take, since their role is to apply and interpret, not to make the law. Arthur R. et al. (2007) Block 7 Justice, W100 Rules, Rights and Justice, Milton Keynes, The Open University BBC News, Tuesday, 6 November 2007, The UK family: In statistics [Accessed 1 September 2008 via Google using keywords à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"uk typical familyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢] Diduck, A. and Kaganas, F. (1999) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Cairns and Gambleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Family Law, Gender and the State, Oxford, Hart. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Reading 36à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Reader 3, W100 Rules, Rights and Justice, Milton Keynes, The Open University, p.97 Harris, P. (2007) An Introduction to Law (7th edn), Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, p. 1 cited in W100 Assessment Guide Part 3 (2008) p.3 Health and Safety Commission (2006) Health and Safety Statistics 2005/6 (online), available at quoted in Arthur R. et al. (2007) Block 7 Justice, W100 Rules, Rights and Justice, Milton Keynes, The Open University, p.9 Hutchinson, A. (1988) Dwelling on the Threshold, Toronto, Carswell, quoted in Arthur R. et al. (2007) Block 7 Justice, W100 Rules, Rights and Justice, Milton Keynes, The Open University, p.138 Lansdown, G., (1994) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Childrenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rightsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, in Mayall, B. (ed.) Childrenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Childhoods: Observed and Experienced, London, The Falmer Press, p.37; cited in Arthur R. et al. (2007) Block 7 Justice, W100 Rules, Rights and Justice, Milton Keynes, The Open University, p.65 Mummery LJ, quoted in Flannery, L. (2006) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"In the eye of the beholder?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, New Law Journal, vol. 156, no. 7212, pp. 279, in Arthur R. et al. (2007) Block 7 Justice, W100 Rules, Rights and Justice, Milton Keynes, The Open University p.155 Cases Portsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt and Wyatt [2005] 1 FLR 21 Re J (A Minor) (Wardship: Medical Treatment) [1991] Fam 33, [1991] 1 FLR 366 Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A history of law in England" essay for you Create order